Mapping of cavitating flow regimes in injectors for medium-/heavy-duty diesel engines

Mitroglou, N. & Gavaises, M. (2013). Mapping of cavitating flow regimes in injectors for medium-/heavy-duty diesel engines. International Journal of Engine Research, 14(6), pp. 590-605. doi: 10.1177/1468087413500491

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Abstract

Reducing the sac volume size of medium-/heavy-duty diesel engine injector nozzles can minimise the fuel dripping into the combustion chamber at the end of injection events, which has been linked to reduced engine-out emissions. This study demonstrates the effect of reduction in the sac volume of diesel fuel injectors utilised in medium-/heavy-duty applications on the internal nozzle flow. This is realised by comparison of two heavy-duty diesel nozzles that feature a large difference in sac volume size of almost three times. For visualisation purposes, the nozzles have been enlarged by six times, and replicas were manufactured from a transparent material. High-speed digital imaging was used to capture the instantaneous spatial and temporal characteristics of geometric as well as dynamic vortex cavitation structures. The investigation was conducted in a steady-state flow test rig for three different needle valve lifts. For all tested conditions, the flow behaviour was analysed at three distinct areas of the nozzle, these being the needle seat, the sac volume and the injection hole. Interpretation of experimental observations was supported by parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations of the exact conditions measured during the experiments. Post-processing of the captured images has revealed the ensemble – average cavitation location, its standard deviation and the cavitation structures life – time inside the sac volume. Results showed a significant dependency of the internal nozzle flow on the sac volume size and identified clear differences in the structure of the cavitation pockets inside the sac volume under certain operating conditions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2016 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cavitation, fuel injectors, diesel engines, computational fluid dynamics simulations, high-speed imaging
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Divisions: School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/13555

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