Risk factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth in Turkey

Gökçe İsbİr, G., İncİ, F., Bektaş, M., Dikmen Yıldız, P. & Ayers, S. (2016). Risk factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth in Turkey. Midwifery, 41, pp. 96-103. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2016.07.016

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: this study examined factors associated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS) following childbirth in women with normal, low-risk pregnancies in Nigde, Turkey.

DESIGN: a prospective longitudinal design where women completed questionnaire measures at 20+ weeks' gestation and 6-8 weeks after birth.

SETTING: eligible pregnant women were recruited from nine family healthcare centres in Nigde between September 2013 and July 2014.

PARTICIPANTS: a total of 242 women completed questionnaires at both time points.

MEASURES: PTS symptoms were measured using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) 6-8 weeks after birth. Potential protective or risk factors of childbirth self-efficacy, fear of childbirth, adaptation to pregnancy/motherhood, and perceived social support were measured in pregnancy and after birth. Perceived support and control during birth was measured after birth. Demographic and obstetric information was collected in pregnancy using standard self-report questions.

FINDINGS: PTS symptoms were associated with being multiparous, having a planned pregnancy, poor psychological adaptation to pregnancy, higher outcome expectancy but lower efficacy expectancy during pregnancy, urinary catheterization during labour, less support and perceived control in birth, less satisfaction with hospital care, poor psychological adaptation to motherhood and increased fear of birth post partum. Regression analyses showed the strongest correlates of PTS symptoms were high outcome and low efficacy expectancies in pregnancy, urinary catheterization in labour, poor psychological adaptation to motherhood and increased fear of birth post partum. This model accounted for 29% of the variance in PTS symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: this study suggests women in this province in Turkey report PTS symptoms after birth and this is associated with childbirth self-efficacy in pregnancy, birth factors, and poor adaptation to motherhood and increased fear of birth post partum.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: maternity care services in Turkey need to recognise the potential impact of birth experiences on women's mental health and adaptation after birth. The importance of self-efficacy in pregnancy suggests antenatal education or support may protect women against developing post partum PTS, but this needs to be examined further.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords: Childbirth; Pregnancy; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Mental health; Post partum
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Divisions: School of Health Sciences > Department of Midwifery
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/15372

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