Flow in valve covered orifice nozzles with cylindrical and tapered holes and link to cavitation erosion and engine exhaust emissions

Gavaises, M. (2008). Flow in valve covered orifice nozzles with cylindrical and tapered holes and link to cavitation erosion and engine exhaust emissions. International Journal of Engine Research, 9(6), doi: 10.1243/14680874JER01708

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Abstract

Results from a research programme addressing the development, testing, and production of valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzles operating with current production Tier 3 offhighway diesel engines are reviewed. The common rail injectors operate at pressures exceeding 1300 bar and include pilot and main injection events. Although acceptable engine exhaust emissions can be obtained with conventional VCO nozzles, cavitation erosion may lead to mechanical failure of the nozzle. Redesigning the injector in terms of its durability against surface erosion has been obtained through use of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver incorporating a two-phase cavitation model and flow visualization in enlarged transparent nozzle replicas. The model has provided evidence of the flow distribution under realistic pressure and needle lift opening scenarios while at the same time it has been calibrated to indicate the locations where the possibility of cavitation erosion may become significant. The experiments performed in enlarged transparent nozzle replicas have provided evidence of the string cavitation structures formed inside the different nozzle designs. Crosscorrelation with engine emission tests indicates that string cavitation may be associated with increased engine exhaust emissions. Proposed injector designs with geometric modification easily implemented in the production series have been proved to be erosion-free while at the same time have improved the engine exhaust emissions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: valve covered orifice nozzles, cavitation erosion, engine exhaust emissions, CFD flow solver
Divisions: School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences > Engineering
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/15518

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