Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries

Craig, G. M., Daftary, A., Engel, N., O’Driscoll, S. & Ioannaki, A. (2016). Tuberculosis stigma as a social determinant of health: a systematic mapping review of research in low incidence countries. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.10.011

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Abstract

Highlights
•Tuberculosis (TB)-related stigma is an important social determinant of health that can impact health-seeking practices and illness management.
•Much research on TB-related stigma has been conducted in high incidence countries.
•This study aimed to systematically map out the research in low incidence countries.
•Few studies included stigma as a substantive topic; only one study aimed to reduce stigma.
•Both TB control programmes and media reporting were implicated in the production of stigma.
•Few studies theorized how stigma intersects with the social and structural determinants of health.
•Future interventions to reduce stigma would benefit from a stronger theoretical underpinning in relation to stigma and the intersection with the social determinants.

Summary
Tuberculosis (TB)-related stigma is an important social determinant of health. Research generally highlights how stigma can have a considerable impact on individuals and communities, including delays in seeking health care and adherence to treatment. There is scant research into the assessment of TB-related stigma in low incidence countries. This study aimed to systematically map out the research into stigma. A particular emphasis was placed on the methods employed to measure stigma, the conceptual frameworks used to understand stigma, and whether structural factors were theorized. Twenty-two studies were identified; the majority adopted a qualitative approach and aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about TB. Few studies included stigma as a substantive topic. Only one study aimed to reduce stigma. A number of studies suggested that TB control measures and representations of migrants in the media reporting of TB were implicated in the production of stigma. The paucity of conceptual models and theories about how the social and structural determinants intersect with stigma was apparent. Future interventions to reduce stigma, and measurements of effectiveness, would benefit from a stronger theoretical underpinning in relation to TB stigma and the intersection between the social and structural determinants of health.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Tuberculosis, Stigma, Migrants, Low incidence, Social determinantsof health, Marginalization, Discrimination, Health care
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Divisions: School of Health Sciences
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/16200

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