City Research Online

Patch-based Corner Detection for Cervical Vertebrae in X-ray Images

Slabaugh, G.G., Gundry, M., Knapp, K., Asad, M. and Al Arif, S.M.M.R. (2017). Patch-based Corner Detection for Cervical Vertebrae in X-ray Images. Signal Processing: Image Communication, doi: 10.1016/j.image.2017.04.002

Abstract

Corners hold vital information about size, shape and morphology of a vertebra in an x-ray image, and recent literature [1, 2] has shown promising performance for detecting vertebral corners using a Hough forest-based architecture. To provide spatial context, this method generates a set of 12 patches around a vertebra and uses a machine learning approach to predict corners of a vertebral body through a voting process. In this paper, we extend this framework in terms of patch generation and prediction methods. During patch generation, the square region of interest has been replaced with data-driven rectangular and trapezoidal region of interest which better aligns the patches to the vertebral body geometry, resulting in more discriminative feature vectors. The corner estimation or the prediction stage has been improved by utilising more efficient voting process using a single kernel density estimation. In addition, advanced and more complex feature vectors are introduced. We also present a thorough evaluation of the framework with different patch generation methods, forest training mechanisms and prediction methods. In order to compare the performance of this framework with a more general method, a novel multi-scale Harris corner detector-based approach is introduced that incorporates a spatial prior through a naive Bayes method. All these methods have been tested on a dataset of 90 X-ray images and achieved an average corner localization error of 2.01 mm, representing a 33% improvement in localisation accuracy compared to the previous state-of-the-art method [2].

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Publisher Keywords: Cervical, X-ray, Vertebra, Corner detection, Hough forest, Machine learning, Harris corner
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
R Medicine
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Computer Science
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/17209
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