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Executive functions in children with developmental coordination disorder: a 2‐year follow‐up study

Bernardi, M., Leonard, H., Hill, E., Botting, N. and Henry, L. (2017). Executive functions in children with developmental coordination disorder: a 2‐year follow‐up study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 63(3), pp. 306-313. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.13640

Abstract

Aim: Executive Function (EF) impairments have been identified in children with motor difficulties, with and without a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, most studies are cross-sectional.This study investigates the development of EF in children with poor motor skills over two years.

Method: Children aged 7- 11 years (N=51) were assessed twice, two years apart, on verbal and nonverbal measures of EFs: executive-loaded working memory; fluency; response inhibition; planning; and cognitive flexibility. Typically developing children (TD: n=17) were compared to those with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (n=17) and those with identified motor difficulties (MD: n=17), but no formal diagnosis of DCD.

Results: Developmental gains in EF were similar between groups, although a gap between children with poor motor skills and TD children on nonverbal EFs persisted. Specifically, children with DCD performed significantly more poorly than TD children on all nonverbal EF tasks and verbal fluency tasks at both time points; and children with MD but no diagnosis showed persistent EF difficulties in nonverbal tasks of working memory and fluency.

Interpretation: Children with DCD and MD demonstrated EF difficulties over two years, which may impact on activities of daily living and academicachievement, in addition to their
motor deficit.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bernardi, M., Leonard, H., Hill E., Botting, N. & Henry, L. (2017) Executive functions in children with developmental coordination disorder: a 2‐year follow‐up study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/dmcn.13640. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Language & Communication Science
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/18526
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