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Adaptive integration of habits into depth-limited planning defines a habitual-goal–directed spectrum

Keramati, M., Smittenaar, P., Dolan, R. J. and Dayan, P. (2016). Adaptive integration of habits into depth-limited planning defines a habitual-goal–directed spectrum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(45), pp. 12868-12873. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1609094113

Abstract

Behavioral and neural evidence reveal a prospective goal-directed decision process that relies on mental simulation of the environment, and a retrospective habitual process that caches returns previously garnered from available choices. Artificial systems combine the two by simulating the environment up to some depth and then exploiting habitual values as proxies for consequences that may arise in the further future. Using a three-step task, we provide evidence that human subjects use such a normative plan-until-habit strategy, implying a spectrum of approaches that interpolates between habitual and goal-directed responding. We found that increasing time pressure led to shallower goal-directed planning, suggesting that a speed-accuracy tradeoff controls the depth of planning with deeper search leading to more accurate evaluation, at the cost of slower decision-making. We conclude that subjects integrate habit-based cached values directly into goal-directed evaluations in a normative manner.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: planning, habit, reinforcement learning, speed/accuracy tradeoff, tree-based evaluation
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Departments: School of Arts & Social Sciences > Psychology
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/20725
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