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A study of unusual Rayleigh matches in deutan deficiency

Barbur, J. L., Rodriguez-Carmona, M., Harlow, J. A., Mancuso, K., Neitz, J. and Neitz, M. (2008). A study of unusual Rayleigh matches in deutan deficiency. Visual Neuroscience, 25(3), pp. 507-516. doi: 10.1017/S0952523808080619

Abstract

Rayleigh match data were modeled with the aim of explaining the locations of match midpoints and matching ranges, both in normal trichromats and in subjects with congenital color deficiency. Model parameters included the wavelength of peak sensitivity of cone photopigments, the effective photopigment optical density, and the noise amplitude in the red-green color channel. In order to avoid the suprathreshold, perceptual effects of extreme L:M cone ratios on color vision, selective post-receptoral amplification of cone signals is needed. The associated noise is also amplified and this causes corresponding changes in red-green threshold sensitivity. We propose that the noise amplitude and hence the size of the matching range in normal trichromats relates to the known inter-subject variation in the relative numbers of L and M cones. If this hypothesis can be shown to account for the extremes of the red-green matching range measured in normal trichromats, it is of interest to establish the extent to which it also predicts the unexpected, small matching ranges that are observed in some subjects with red-green color deficiency. A subset of subjects with deutan deficiency that exhibited less common Nagel matches were selected for genetic analysis of their cone pigment genes in order to confirm the type of deficiency, and to predict the corresponding peak wavelength separation (δλmax) of their two, long-wavelength cone pigments. The Rayleigh match model predicted accurately the midpoint and the range for the spectral differences specified by the genes. The prediction also required plausible selection of effective optical density of the cone pigments and noise. The noise needed varied, but the estimates were confined to lie within the limits established from the matching ranges measured in normal trichromats. The model predicts correctly the small matching ranges measured in some deuteranomalous subjects, principally accounted for by a low estimate of noise level in the red-green channel. The model also predicts the “normal” matches made by some subjects that rely on two hybrid genes and therefore exhibit red-green thresholds outside the normal range, typical of mild deuteranomaly.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: Color deficiency; Rayleigh match; Nagel anomaloscope; Unique yellow; Cone pigment genes; L:M cone ratio; CAD test
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Optometry & Visual Science
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/3257
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