Reasoning with Streamed Uncertain Information from Unreliable Sources

Arunkumar, S., Sensoy, M., Srivatsa, M. & Rajarajan, M. (2015). Reasoning with Streamed Uncertain Information from Unreliable Sources. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(22), pp. 8381-8392. doi: 10.1016/j.eswa.2015.04.031

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Abstract

Humans or intelligent software agents are increasingly faced with the challenge of making decisions based on large volumes of streaming information from diverse sources. Decision makers must process the observed information by inferring additional information, estimating its reliability, and orienting it for decision making. Processing streaming trust framework, when fact is getting created and inferred is a process in online mode and our paper works effciently in online mode. In online mode, someone initiates a query and gets an output based on the query. In this paper we have mainly shown that unstructured reports from unreliable and heterogeneous sources are processed to generate structured information in Controlled English. Uncertainty in the information is modelled using Subjective Logic that allows statistical inference over uncertain information. Trustworthiness of information is modelled and conflicts are resolved before fusion. This process is totally undertaken on streaming information resulting in new facts being inferred from incoming information which immediately goes through trust assessment framework and trust is propagated to the inferred fact. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework where unstructured reports are streamed from heterogeneous and potentially untrustworthy information sources. These reports are processed to extract valuable uncertain information, which is represented using Controlled Natural Language
and Subjective Logic. Additional information is inferred using deduction and abduction operations over subjective opinions derived from the reports. Before fusing extracted and inferred opinions, the framework estimates trustworthiness of these opinions, detects conflicts between them, and resolve these conflicts by analysing evidence about the reliability of their sources. Lastly, we describe an implementation of the framework using International Technology Alliance (ITA) assets (Information Fabric Services and Controlled English Fact Store) and present an experimental evaluation that quantifies the efficiency with respect to accuracy and overhead of the proposed framework.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2015 Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Uncontrolled Keywords: information fusion, controlled natural language, subjective logic
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BC Logic
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Divisions: School of Engineering & Mathematical Sciences
URI: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/8678

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