Sekimoto, A., Kawahara, G., Sekiyama, K., Uhlmann, M. and Pinelli, A. (2011). Turbulenceand buoyancydriven secondary flow in a horizontal square duct heated from below. Physics of fluids, 23, 075103. doi: 10.1063/1.3593462
Abstract
Direct numerical simulations of fully developed turbulent flows in a horizontal square duct heated from below are performed at bulk Reynolds numbersRe b = 3000 and 4400 (based on duct width H) and bulk Richardson numbers 0≤Ri≤1.03. The primary objective of the numerical simulations concerns the characterization of the mean secondary flow that develops in this class of flows. On one hand, it is known that turbulent isothermal flow in a square duct presents secondary mean motions of Prandtl’s second kind that finds its origin in the behavior of turbulence structures. On the other hand, thermal convection drives a mean secondary motion of Prandtl’s first kind directly induced by buoyancy. As far as the mean structure of the crossstream motion is concerned, it is found that different types of secondary flow regimes take place when increasing the value of the Richardson number. The mean secondary flow in the range 0.025≲Ri≲0.25 is characterized by a single largescale thermal convection roll and four turbulencedriven corner vortices of the opposite sense of rotation to the roll, as contrasted with the classical scenario of the eightvortex secondary flow pattern typical of isothermal turbulent squareduct flow. This remarkable structural difference in the corner regions can be interpreted in terms of combined effects, on instantaneous streamwise vortices, of the largescale circulation and of the geometrical constraint by the duct corner. When further increasing the Richardson number, i.e., Ri ≳ 0.25, the structure of the mean secondary flow is solely determined by the largescale circulation induced by the buoyancy force. In this regime, the additional mean crossstream motion is characterized by the presence of two distinct buoyancydriven vortices of opposite sense of rotation to the circulation only in two of the four corner regions. With increasing Ri, the largescale circulation is found to enhance the wall skin friction and heat transfer. In the significantbuoyancy regime Ri ≳ 0.25, the mean crossstream motion and its rms fluctuations are found to scale, respectively, with the buoyancyinduced velocity ug=√gβΔTH (g, β, and ΔT being the gravity acceleration, the volumetric coefficient of thermal expansion, and the temperature difference across the duct, respectively) and with the mixed velocity scale √(ν/H)ug (ν being the kinematic viscosity). It is suggested that the probable scalings for the rms of streamwise velocity component and of temperature fluctuation are related with the friction velocity uτ and friction temperature Tτ according to the magnitudes u2τ/√(ν/H)ug and Tτuτ/√(ν/H)ug, respectively.
Publication Type:  Article 

Additional Information:  Copyright AIP 2011 
Subjects:  T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General) 
Departments:  School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering > Mechanical Engineering & Aeronautics 
URI:  http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/6938 

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