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What do patients with strabismus expect post surgery? The development and validation a questionnaire

McBain, H. B., MacKenzie, K., Hancox, J., Ezra, D. G., Adams, G. G. W. and Newman, S. P. (2016). What do patients with strabismus expect post surgery? The development and validation a questionnaire. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 100(3), pp. 415-419. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2015-307027


Aims: To develop and validate a short questionnaire to assess patients’ expectations about outcomes post strabismus surgery.

Methods: Questionnaire items were extracted from previous literature and reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. A cross-sectional study was then undertaken with 220 adult patients due to undergo strabismus surgery. Participants completed the 17-item questionnaire. Scale structure was explored using principal component analysis (PCA), and the subscales analysed in relation to demographic and clinical characteristics and psychosocial well-being in order to establish validity.

Results: PCA revealed a 3-factor solution for the Expectations of Strabismus Surgery Questionnaire (ESSQ): (a) intimacy and appearance-related issues, (b) visual functioning, (c) social relationships. This 3-factor solution explained 59.30% of the overall variance in the ESSQ. Internal consistency, content and nomological and concurrent validity were considered acceptable.

Conclusions: Patients with strabismus have high expectations about their postsurgical outcomes. This questionnaire provides a useful tool to assess the expectations patients have about their surgery, whether these expectations change over time and how they impact on postsurgical outcomes.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Article appears in British Journal of Ophthalmology,
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
Date available in CRO: 14 Jul 2015 09:22
Date deposited: 21 July 2016
Date of acceptance: 4 July 2015
Date of first online publication: 21 July 2015
Text - Accepted Version
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