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3D discomfort from vertical and torsional disparities in natural images

Tyler, C. W., Likova, L.T., Atanassov, K. , Ramachandra, V. & Goma, S. (2012). 3D discomfort from vertical and torsional disparities in natural images. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XVII, 8291, article number 82910Q. doi: 10.1117/12.915466


The two major aspects of camera misalignment that cause visual discomfort when viewing images on a 3D display are vertical and torsional disparities. While vertical disparities are uniform throughout the image, torsional rotations introduce a range of disparities that depend on the location in the image. The goal of this study was to determine the discomfort ranges for the kinds of natural image that people are likely to take with 3D cameras rather than the artificial line and dot stimuli typically used for laboratory studies. We therefore assessed visual discomfort on a five-point scale from ‘none’ to ‘severe’ for artificial misalignment disparities applied to a set of full-resolution images of indoor scenes.

For viewing times of 2 s, discomfort ratings for vertical disparity in both 2D and 3D images rose rapidly toward the discomfort level of 4 (‘severe’) by about 60 arcmin of vertical disparity. Discomfort ratings for torsional disparity in the same image rose only gradually, reaching only the discomfort level of 3 (‘strong’) by about 50 deg of torsional disparity. These data were modeled with a second-order hyperbolic compression function incorporating a term for the basic discomfort of the 3D display in the absence of any misalignments through a Minkowski norm. These fits showed that, at a criterion discomfort level of 2 (‘moderate’), acceptable levels of vertical disparity were about 15 arcmin. The corresponding values for the torsional disparity were about 30 deg of relative orientation.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Tyler, CW, Likova, LT, Atanassov, K, Ramachandra, V & Goma, S (2012). 3D discomfort from vertical and torsional disparities in natural images. HUMAN VISION AND ELECTRONIC IMAGING XVII, 8291. Copyright 2012 Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.
Publisher Keywords: 3D discomfort, Vertical disparity, Torsional disparity, 3D display, Stereoscopic, Misalignment
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Optometry & Visual Sciences
SWORD Depositor:
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