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On the merits of tetrapolar impedance spectroscopy for monitoring lithium concentration variations in human blood plasma

Constantinou, L., Triantis, I., Hickey, M. & Kyriacou, P. A. (2017). On the merits of tetrapolar impedance spectroscopy for monitoring lithium concentration variations in human blood plasma. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 64(3), pp. 601-609. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2016.2570125


Bipolar disorder is characterized as a manic-depressive psychiatric syndrome with life-threatening risks to the patient. Diagnosed individuals undergo long-term lithium therapy which has proven to be effective for mood stabilization. Maintaining blood lithium concentration levels within a narrow therapeutic window between 0.6-1.5 mM is vital for the patient as slightly elevated concentrations of the order of 0.1 mM can be toxic. This paper aims to evaluate the merits of tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (TEIS) as an alternative method in monitoring blood Lithium levels. Measurements were performed using a custom-made tetrapolar probe in human blood plasma with Lithium concentrations covering the therapeutic range. The results indicate a limit of detection less than 0.1 mM and a response time of less than 5 s. Prediction of Lithium concentration levels using impedance values is in good agreement with conventional standard techniques to approximately 0.05 mM. This technique provides a basis for further development of instrumentation for point of care healthcare technologies.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Publisher Keywords: bipolar disorder, Lithium, tetrapolar, electrical impedance spectroscopy, point of care healthcare technologies
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
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