City Research Online

The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness

Moore, D., Ayers, S. & Drey, N. (2017). The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 35(3), pp. 273-285. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2017.1313967


Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women.

Background: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma.

Method: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a literature review. Women with perinatal mental illness (n = 279) were recruited to complete the City Mental Illness Stigma Scale. Concurrent validity was measured using the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale. Factor analysis was used to create the final scale.

Results: The final 15-item City Mental Illness Stigma Scale has a three-factor structure: perceived external stigma, internal stigma and disclosure stigma. The scale accounted for 54% of the variance and had good internal reliability and concurrent validity.

Conclusion: The City Mental Illness Stigma Scale appears to be a valid measure which provides a potentially useful tool for clinical practice and research in stigma and perinatal mental illness, including assessing the prevalence and characteristics of stigma. This research can be used to inform interventions to reduce or address the stigma experienced by some women with perinatal mental illness.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology on 27 Apr 2017, available online:
Publisher Keywords: Stigma scale, perinatal mental illness scale, perinatal mental illness stigma, stigma, City MISS
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Nursing
SWORD Depositor:
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