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Rene Dubos, tuberculosis, and the "ecological facets of virulence"

Honigsbaum, M. (2017). Rene Dubos, tuberculosis, and the "ecological facets of virulence". History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 39(3), 15.. doi: 10.1007/s40656-017-0142-5

Abstract

Reflecting on his scientific career toward the end of his life, the French-educated medical researcher René Dubos presented his flowering as an ecological thinker as a story of linear progression—the inevitable product of the intellectual seeds planted in his youth. But how much store should we set by Dubos’s account of his ecological journey? Resisting retrospective biographical readings, this paper seeks to relate the development of Dubos’s ecological ideas to his experimental practices and his career as a laboratory researcher. In particular, I focus on Dubos’s studies of tuberculosis at the Rockefeller Institute in the period 1944–1956—studies which began with an inquiry into the tubercle bacillus and the physiochemical determinants of virulence, but which soon encompassed a wider investigation of the influence of environmental forces and host–parasite interactions on susceptibility and resistance to infection in animal models. At the same time, through a close reading of Dubos’s scientific papers and correspondence, I show how he both drew on and distinguished his ecological ideas from those of other medical researchers such as Theobald Smith, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, and Frank Fenner. However, whereas Burnet and Fenner tended to view ecological interactions at the level of populations, Dubos focused on the interface of hosts and parasites in the physiological environments of individuals. The result was that although Dubos never fully engaged with the science of ecology, he was able to incorporate ecological ideas into his thought and practices, and relate them to his holistic views on health and the natural harmony of man and his environment.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: Ecology, Virulence, Balance, Bacterial adaptation, Tuberculosis, Antibiotics
Departments: School of Arts & Social Sciences > Journalism
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/20372
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