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Questionnaire study to gain an insight into the manufacturing and fitting process of artificial eyes in children: an ocularist perspective

Chinnery, H., Thompson, S. B. N., Noroozi, S. , Dyer, B. & Rees, K. (2017). Questionnaire study to gain an insight into the manufacturing and fitting process of artificial eyes in children: an ocularist perspective. International Ophthalmology, 37(5), pp. 1175-1183. doi: 10.1007/s10792-016-0383-4


To gain an insight into the manufacturing and fitting of artificial eyes in children and potential improvements to the process.

An online qualitative survey was distributed to 39 ocularists/prosthetists in Europe and Canada. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling, specifically maximum variation sampling from the researcher’s contacts and an online search.

The findings highlighted the current impression technique as being the most difficult yet most important part of the current process for both the ocularist and child patient. Negatively affecting obtaining a good impression, the child patients distress can be reduced by their parents by providing encouragement, reassurance, practicing the insertion and removal of the artificial eye and being matter of fact. Whilst improvements to the current process provided mixed views, the incorporation of current technology was perceived as not being able to meet the requirements to produce aesthetically pleasing artificial eyes.

The current artificial eye process can be seen as an interaction with its success being dependent on the child patient’s acceptance and adjustment which is dependent on the factors associated to the process. Investigation into the needs of the patient and whether technology can improve the process are the next steps in its advancement.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Publisher Keywords: Artificial eyes, Child healthcare, Prosthetic eyes, Healthcare
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

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