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A Double Error Dynamic Asymptote Model of Associative Learning

Kokkola, N., Mondragon, E. ORCID: 0000-0003-4180-1261 & Alonso, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-3306-695X (2019). A Double Error Dynamic Asymptote Model of Associative Learning. Psychological Review, 126(4), pp. 506-549. doi: 10.1037/rev0000147


In this paper a formal model of associative learning is presented which incorporates representational and computational mechanisms that, as a coherent corpus, empower it to make accurate predictions of a wide variety of phenomena that so far have eluded a unified account in learning theory. In particular, the Double Error Dynamic Asymptote (DDA) model introduces: 1) a fully-connected network architecture in which stimuli are represented as temporally clustered elements that associate to each other, so that elements of one cluster engender activity on other clusters, which naturally implements neutral stimuli associations and mediated learning; 2) a predictor error term within the traditional error correction rule (the double error), which reduces the rate of learning for expected predictors; 3) a revaluation associability rate that operates on the assumption that the outcome predictiveness is tracked over time so that prolonged uncertainty is learned, reducing the levels of attention to initially surprising outcomes; and critically 4) a biologically plausible variable asymptote, which encapsulates the principle of Hebbian learning, leading to stronger associations for similar levels of cluster activity. The outputs of a set of simulations of the DDA model are presented along with empirical results from the literature. Finally, the predictive scope of the model is discussed.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © American Psychological Association, 2019. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available, upon publication, at:
Publisher Keywords: associative learning, classical conditioning, computational modeling, real-time double error correction, variable asymptote
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Computer Science
SWORD Depositor:
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