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Is Europe Cascading into Fascism?: Addressing Key Concepts including Gender and Violence

Walby, S. (2018). Is Europe Cascading into Fascism?: Addressing Key Concepts including Gender and Violence. Politics and Governance, 6(3), pp. 67-77. doi: 10.17645/pag.v6i3.1438


Is Europe cascading into fascism? The answer to this question matters for understanding the opposition to gender equality projects in Europe. The article addresses some of the key concepts needed to answer this question. Is ‘fascism’ or ‘authoritarian neoliberalism’ or just ‘neoliberalism’ the most appropriate concept to capture the turn to the right? The article compares the extent to which these concepts encompass ‘violence’ and ‘gender’. ‘Fascism’ is an important benchmarkfrom European history, but Europe has not yet reached its levels of violence. The qualifier ‘authoritarian’ is not needed for ‘neoliberalism’ since it generates a trajectory towards violence. Some conceptual work is required in order to develop ‘neoliberalism’ to encompass ‘gender’ and ‘violence’, but there are bodies of work that support such a development. Including gender in analyses of the macro level changes occurring in Europe requires the concept of ‘varieties of gender regime’, which enables the conceptualisation of neoliberalism as gendered.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (, which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction of the work without further permission provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
Publisher Keywords: Europe; fascism; gender; violence
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
J Political Science > JN Political institutions (Europe)
Departments: School of Policy & Global Affairs > Sociology & Criminology
SWORD Depositor:
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