City Research Online

Classification and heritability of macular pigment spatial profile phenotypes using two-wavelength fundus autofluorescence

Huntjens, B. ORCID: 0000-0002-4864-0723, Ctori, I. ORCID: 0000-0003-1523-4996, Mahroo, O. A. , Williams, K. M. & Hammond, C. J. (2016). Classification and heritability of macular pigment spatial profile phenotypes using two-wavelength fundus autofluorescence. Acta Ophthalmologica, 94, doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2016.0526


We investigated the frequency and heritability of macular pigment (MP) spatial profile phenotypes determined by objective and subjective profile classification based on fundus autofluorescence (FAF).

Between scans Coefficient of Repeatability (CoR) of MP optical density (MPOD) was calculated from two FAF scans (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany) of 40 participants (39±8.6 years) acquired in a single session. We then analyzed two FAF scans acquired in a single session from 314 twins (157 pairs; 39±8.8 years) and classified each MP profile as exponential, ring-like or central dip by subjective visual assessment. Profiles were also classified objectively based on deviations larger than the CoR away from the exponential fit. We calculated Kappa agreement of the profiling methods, case-wise concordance of non-exponential profiles for the 88 mono- (MZ) and 69 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs, and profile heritability.

Following visual subjective profiling, 64% showed an exponential profile, 27% presented ring-like and 9% central dip profiles; case-wise concordance was 0.80 for MZ and 0.41 for DZ twins. Following objective classification, 71% showed an exponential profile, 29% ring-like profile and no central dip profiles were identified; case-wise concordance was 0.74 for MZ and 0.36 for DZ twins. Heritability was calculated as 81.5% (95% CI 61.1 to 93.1). Between scan repeatability of profile classification showed good agreement objectively (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00; P<0.0005) and moderate agreement visually (κ=0.48, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.73; P<0.0005). Agreement of subjective versus objective profiling was low (κ=0.23, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.42; P=0.02).

MP profiles showed high heritability. Compared to visual assessment, objective profile classification is a more reliable method for future experimental studies using FAF.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Huntjens, B. , Ctori, I. , Mahroo, O. , Williams, K. and Hammond, C. (2016), Classification and heritability of macular pigment spatial profile phenotypes using two‐wavelength fundus autofluorescence. Acta Ophthalmol, 94, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Optometry & Visual Sciences
[thumbnail of Ever 2016 Abstract Byki FINAL.pdf]
Text - Accepted Version
Download (420kB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login