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Evidence-Based Leadership Development for Physicians: A Systematic Literature Review

Goodall, A. H. ORCID: 0000-0002-9074-1157, Geerts, J. & Agius, S. (2019). Evidence-Based Leadership Development for Physicians: A Systematic Literature Review. Social Science and Medicine, 246, article number 112709. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.112709


Interest in leadership development in healthcare is substantial. Yet it remains unclear which interventions are most reliably associated with positive outcomes. We focus on the important area of physician leadership development in a systematic literature review of the latest research from 2007 to 2016. The paper applies a validated instrument used for medical education, MERSQI, to the included studies. Ours is the first review in this research area to create a tiered rating system to assess the best available evidence. We concentrate on findings from papers in the highly-rated categories. First, our review concludes that improvements in individual-level outcomes can be achieved (e.g. knowledge, motivation, skills, and behaviour change). Second, development programs can substantially improve organizational and clinical outcomes. Third, some of the most effective interventions include: workshops, videotaped simulations, multisource feedback (MSF), coaching, action learning, and mentoring. Fourth, the evidence suggests that objective outcome data should be collected at baseline, end of program, and retrospectively. An outcomes-based approach appears to be the most effective design of programs. We also make recommendations for future research and practice.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Leadership development, Physicians, Systematic literature review, Outcomes, Impact
Departments: Bayes Business School > Management
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of SS&M Physician leadership Master 2019.pdf]
Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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