Cvjetkovic, Milan (2019). Distributed localisation algorithm for wireless ad hoc networks of moving nodes. (Unpublished Doctoral thesis, City, University of London)
Abstract
Existing ad hoc network localisation solutions rely either on external location references or networkwide exchange of information and centralised processing and computation of location estimates. Without these, nodes are not able to estimate the relative locations of other nodes within their communication range. This thesis defines a new distributed localisation algorithm for ad hoc networks of moving nodes. The Relative Neighbour Localisation (RNL) algorithm works without any external localisation signal or systems and does not assume centralised information processing. The idea behind the location estimates produced by the RNL algorithm is the relationship between the relative locations of two nodes, their mobility parameters and the signal strengths measured between them. The proposed algorithm makes use of the data available to each node to produce a location estimate. The signal strength each node is capable of measuring is used as one algorithm input. The other input is the velocity vector of the neighbouring node, composed of its speed and direction of movement, which each node is assumed to periodically broadcast. The relationship between the signal strength and the mobility parameters on one, and the relative location on the other side can be analytically formulated in an ideal case. The limitations of a realistic scenario complicate this relationship, making it very difficult to formulate analytically. An empirical approach is thus used. The angle and the distance estimates are individually computed, together forming a twodimensional location estimate. The performance of the algorithm was analysed in detail using simulation, showing a median estimate error of under 10m, and its application was tested through design and evaluation of a distributed sensing coverage algorithm, showing RNL location estimates can provide 90% of the coverage achievable with true locations being known.

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