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Identification and Quantitative Determination of Lactate Using Optical Spectroscopy—Towards a Noninvasive Tool for Early Recognition of Sepsis

Budidha, K. ORCID: 0000-0002-6329-8399, Mamouei, M. H., Baishya, N. ORCID: 0000-0002-2231-6132 , Qassem, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0730-3189, Vadgama, P. & Kyriacou, P. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-2868-485X (2020). Identification and Quantitative Determination of Lactate Using Optical Spectroscopy—Towards a Noninvasive Tool for Early Recognition of Sepsis. Sensors, 20(18), article number 5402. doi: 10.3390/s20185402


Uninterrupted monitoring of serum lactate levels is a prerequisite in the critical care of patients prone to sepsis, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, or severe lung disease. Yet there exists no device to continuously measure blood lactate in clinical practice. Optical spectroscopy together with multivariate analysis is proposed as a viable noninvasive tool for estimation of lactate in blood. As an initial step towards this goal, we inspected the plausibility of predicting the concentration of sodium lactate (NaLac) from the UV/visible, near-infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of 37 isotonic phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) samples containing NaLac ranging from 0 to 20 mmol/L. UV/visible (300–800 nm) and NIR (800–2600 nm) spectra of PBS samples were collected using the PerkinElmer Lambda 1050 dual-beam spectrophotometer, while MIR (4000–500 cm−1) spectra were collected using the Spectrum two FTIR spectrometer. Absorption bands in the spectra of all three regions were identified and functional groups were assigned. The concentration of lactate in samples was predicted using the Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation. The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.926, 0.977, and 0.992 for UV/visible, NIR, and MIR spectra, respectively, between the predicted and reference samples. The RMSECV of UV/visible, NIR, and MIR spectra was 1.59, 0.89, and 0.49 mmol/L, respectively. The results indicate that optical spectroscopy together with multivariate models can achieve a superior technique in assessing lactate concentrations.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy; UV/visible spectra; mid-infrared spectra; blood lactate; sepsis
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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