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Fairness and Annuitisation Divisors for Notional Defined Contribution Pension Schemes

Boado-Penas, C., Haberman, S. ORCID: 0000-0003-2269-9759 & Naka, P. (2020). Fairness and Annuitisation Divisors for Notional Defined Contribution Pension Schemes. Journal of Pension Economics and Finance,


The use of a gender-neutral annuity divisor introduces an intra-generational redistribution from short-lived towards long-lived individuals; this entails a transfer of wealth from males to females and from low socioeconomic groups to high socioeconomic groups. With some subpopulations consisting of females from low socioeconomic groups (or males from high groups), the net effect of the redistribution is unclear. The study aims to quantify the lifetime income redistribution of a generic NDC system using two types of divisor—the demographic and the economic—to compute the amount of an initial pension. With this in mind, the redistribution (actuarial fairness) among subpopulations is assessed through the ratio between the present value of expected pensions received and contributions paid. We find that all subgroups of women and men with high educational attainment benefit from the use of the unisex demographic divisor. This paper also shows that the value of the economic divisor depends markedly on population composition. When mortality differentials by gender and level of education are considered, economic divisors are mostly driven by the longevity effect corresponding to gender.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been published in a revised form in Journal of Pension Economics and Finance at This version is published under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND. No commercial re-distribution or re-use allowed. Derivative works cannot be distributed. © the authors, 2020.
Publisher Keywords: annuity divisor, notional defined contribution, mortality differentials, public pension, redistribution, socioeconomic groups
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HF Commerce > HF5601 Accounting
Departments: Bayes Business School > Actuarial Science & Insurance
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Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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