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Increased serum peripheral C-reactive protein is associated with reduced brain barriers permeability of TSPO radioligands in healthy volunteers and depressed patients: implications for inflammation and depression.

Turkheimer, F. E., Althubaity, N., Schubert, J., Nettis, M. A., Cousins, O., Dima, D. ORCID: 0000-0002-2598-0952, Mondelli, V., Bullmore, E. T., Pariante, C. and Veronese, M. (2020). Increased serum peripheral C-reactive protein is associated with reduced brain barriers permeability of TSPO radioligands in healthy volunteers and depressed patients: implications for inflammation and depression.. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.10.025

Abstract

The relationship between peripheral and central immunity and how these ultimately may cause depressed behaviour has been the focus of a number of imaging studies conducted with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). These studies aimed at testing the immune-mediated model of depression that proposes a direct effect of peripheral cytokines and immune cells on the brain to elicit a neuroinflammatory response via a leaky blood-brain barrier and ultimately depressive behaviour. However, studies conducted so far using PET radioligands targeting the neuroinflammatory marker 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) in patient cohorts with depression have demonstrated mild inflammatory brain status but no correlation between central and peripheral immunity. To gain a better insight into the relationship between heightened peripheral immunity and neuroinflammation, we estimated blood-to-brain and blood-to-CSF perfusion rates for two TSPO radiotracers collected in two separate studies, one large cross-sectional study of neuroinflammation in normal and depressed cohorts (N = 51 patients and N = 25 controls) and a second study where peripheral inflammation in N = 7 healthy controls was induced via subcutaneous injection of interferon (IFN)-α. In both studies we observed a consistent negative association between peripheral inflammation, measured with c-reactive protein P (CRP), and radiotracer perfusion into and from the brain parenchyma and CSF. Importantly, there was no association of this effect with the marker of BBB leakage S100β, that was unchanged. These results suggest a different model of peripheral-to-central immunity interaction whereas peripheral inflammation may cause a reduction in BBB permeability. This effect, on the long term, is likely to disrupt brain homeostasis and induce depressive behavioural symptoms.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Publisher Keywords: Inflammation, Depression, BBB permeability, CSF, Choroid plexus, PET, Tracer percolation
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Departments: School of Arts & Social Sciences > Psychology
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2020 12:43
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/25280
[img] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible until 5 November 2021 due to copyright restrictions.
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

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