City Research Online

Artificial Authors: Copyright in Works of Machine Learning

Goold, P. ORCID: 0000-0003-1097-8291 (2020). Artificial Authors: Copyright in Works of Machine Learning. Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA, 67, pp. 427-470.


The Article investigates whether creative works produced via machine learning algorithms qualify for copyright protection. Previous research into this question has been largely theoretical. By contrast, the Article introduces four empirical case studies of works produced via machine learning. The Article examines the copyrightability of such works under U.S., E.U., and U.K., law. The Article concludes that such works are sufficiently original to qualify for copyright protection. This conclusion casts into doubt prior literature that finds works of machine learning algorithms to be outside the scope of copyright protection.

Publication Type: Article
Publisher Keywords: Copyright, Artificial Intelligence, Empirical Case Studies; Doctrinal
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
K Law > K Law (General)
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
Departments: The City Law School > Academic Programmes
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