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Modelling and prediction of cavitation erosion in GDi injectors operated with E100 fuel

Gomez Santos, E., Shi, J., Venkatasubramanian, R. , Hoffmann, G., Gavaises, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0874-8534 & Bauer, W. (2021). Modelling and prediction of cavitation erosion in GDi injectors operated with E100 fuel. Fuel, 289, 119923. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119923


Ethanol (E100) can be utilised in spark ignition engines for passenger car vehicles. This brings a challenge to the durability of the fuel injection system components since its use can result in corrosion, further enhanced by cavitation-induced erosion. This work reports computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions for both the flow development and the locations prone to cavitation erosion in multi-hole gasoline direct injection (GDi) injectors operated with E100. The compressible form of the Navier–Stokes equations is solved numerically considering the motion of the injector's needle valve. Thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium is assumed between the liquid, vapour and non-condensable gas; E100 liquid and vapour are considered as a barotropic fluids where the corresponding variation in density with pressure and the speed of sound are estimated via a relevant equation of state; an additional transport equation is solved for simulating the non-condensable air entrainment into the injector during the dwell time between successive injections. Turbulence is modelled using both large eddy simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) considering a sector and the full nozzle geometry, respectively. Various cavitation erosion indices reported in the literature are evaluated against new durability tests of surface erosion damage obtained after 400 M injection cycles. The relevant nozzle wall erosion images are found to correlate well with the accumulated erosive power predicted from the computational model.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021 This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Cavitation, Erosion, E100 fuel, Gasoline direct injection, LES, URANS
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
[thumbnail of manuscript_revised_Gomezetal20.pdf]
Text - Accepted Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

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