City Research Online

Modelling Crossing Random Seas by Fully Nonlinear Numerical Simulations

Wang, J., Ma, Q. ORCID: 0000-0001-5579-6454, Yan, S. ORCID: 0000-0001-8968-6616 & Liang, B. (2021). Modelling Crossing Random Seas by Fully Nonlinear Numerical Simulations. Frontiers in Physics, 9, article number 593394. doi: 10.3389/fphy.2021.593394


Bimodal spectrum wave conditions, known as crossing seas, can produce extreme waves which are hostile to humans during oceanic activities. This study reports some new findings of the probability of extreme waves in deep crossing random seas in response to the variation of spectral bandwidth through fully non-linear numerical simulations. Two issues are addressed, namely (i) the impacts of the spectral bandwidth on the changes of extreme wave statistics, i.e., the kurtosis and crest exceedance probability, and (ii) the suitability of theoretical distribution models for accurately describing the wave crest height exceedance probability in crossing seas. The numerical results obtained by simulating a large number of crossing sea conditions on large spatial-temporal scale with a variety of spectral bandwidth indicate that the kurtosis and crest height exceedance probability will be enhanced when the bandwidth of each wave train becomes narrower, suggesting a higher probability of encountering extreme waves in narrowband crossing seas. Meanwhile, a novel empirical formula is suggested to predict the kurtosis in crossing seas provided the bandwidth is known in advance. In addition, the Rayleigh and second-order Tayfun distribution underestimate the crest height exceedance probability, while the third-order Tayfun distribution only yields satisfactory predictions for cases with relatively broader bandwidth regarding the wave conditions considered in this study. For crossing seas with narrower bandwidth, all the theoretical distribution models failed to accurately describe the crest height exceedance probability of extreme waves.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright © 2021 Wang, Ma, Yan and Liang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
Publisher Keywords: crossing seas, extreme waves, kurtosis, exceedance probability, fully non-linear potential theory
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Q Science > QC Physics
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of fphy-09-593394.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

Download (1MB) | Preview


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login