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Many suspensions, many problems: a review of self-suspending tasks in real-time systems

Chen, J-J., Nelissen, G., Huang, W-H., Yang, M., Brandenburg, B., Bletsas, K., Liu, C., Richard, P., Ridouard, F., Audsley, N. C. ORCID: 0000-0003-3739-6590, Rajkumar, R., de Niz, D. and von der Brueggen, G. (2019). Many suspensions, many problems: a review of self-suspending tasks in real-time systems. Real-Time Systems, 55(1), pp. 144-207. doi: 10.1007/s11241-018-9316-9

Abstract

In general computing systems, a job (process/task) may suspend itself whilst it is waiting for some activity to complete, e.g., an accelerator to return data. In real-time systems, such self-suspension can cause substantial performance/schedulability degradation. This observation, first made in 1988, has led to the investigation of the impact of self-suspension on timing predictability, and many relevant results have been published since. Unfortunately, as it has recently come to light, a number of the existing results are flawed. To provide a correct platform on which future research can be built, this paper reviews the state of the art in the design and analysis of scheduling algorithms and schedulability tests for self-suspending tasks in real-time systems. We provide (1) a systematic description of how self-suspending tasks can be handled in both soft and hard real-time systems; (2) an explanation of the existing misconceptions and their potential remedies; (3) an assessment of the influence of such flawed analyses on partitioned multiprocessor fixed-priority scheduling when tasks synchronize access to shared resources; and (4) a discussion of the computational complexity of analyses for different self-suspension task models.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. It has been published in Real-Time Systems, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11241-018-9316-9
Publisher Keywords: Self-suspension, Schedulability tests, Real-time system, Multiprocessor synchronization
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering
Date available in CRO: 14 May 2021 15:19
Date deposited: 14 May 2021
Date of first online publication: 11 September 2018
URI: https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/26150
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