City Research Online

Artificial Authors: Case Studies of Copyright In Works of Machine Learning

Goold, P. ORCID: 0000-0003-1097-8291 (2021). Artificial Authors: Case Studies of Copyright In Works of Machine Learning (City Law School Research Paper 2021/02). London, UK: The City Law School.


The Article investigates whether creative works produced via machine learning algorithms qualify for copyright protection. Previous research into this question has been largely theoretical. By contrast, the Article introduces four empirical case studies of works produced via machine learning. The Article examines the copyrightability of such works under U.S., E.U., and U.K., law. The Article concludes that such works are sufficiently original to qualify for copyright protection. This conclusion casts into doubt prior literature that finds works of machine learning algorithms to be outside the scope of copyright protection.

Publication Type: Monograph (Working Paper)
Additional Information: Copyright, 2021, the author.
Publisher Keywords: Copyright, Artificial Intelligence
Subjects: J Political Science > JN Political institutions (Europe)
K Law
K Law > KD England and Wales
Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Departments: The City Law School > Academic Programmes
The City Law School > CLS Working Paper Series
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