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Biaxial 3D-Printed Inclinometer Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Technology

Ismail, N., Sa'ad, M., Ismaila, M., Zaini, M. K. A., Lim, K. S., Grattan, K. T. V. ORCID: 0000-0003-2250-3832, Brambilla, G., Rahman, B. M. ORCID: 0000-0001-6384-0961, Mohamad, H. and Ahmad, H. (2021). Biaxial 3D-Printed Inclinometer Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Technology. IEEE Sensors Journal, 21(17), pp. 18815-18822. doi: 10.1109/jsen.2021.3090105


A Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)-based inclinometer has been developed for field use, designed to incorporate biaxial 3-dimensional (3D) printed tilt sensors (in which four FBGs were used). The inclinometer was characterized by examining its response to a wide range of tilts, over the range from 0° to 90°, towards the inclination axes. An excellent linear correlation between the wavelength shifts and the inclination angle (up to the 90° used) was obtained, showing an average sensitivity of 0.01 nm per degree of inclination angle, for each of the FBGs used. In addition to the four FBGs that form the basis of the inclination measurement, a further FBG was included in the design to allow compensation for any temperature changes experienced during the measurements. The device was calibrated over the range from -25°C to 80°C (corresponding to the extremes of cold and hot weather conditions likely to be experienced in-the-field), and a sensitivity to temperature change of 0.011nm/°C was achieved, allowing an effective temperature correction to be applied. The data obtained from a full characterization of the performance of the sensor system, carried out in a stable, controlled environment, indicate that this inclinometer yields good sensitivity, making it highly applicable for use in monitoring rapid ground movements and deformations with its compact design allowing its wide use.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Publisher Keywords: Inclinometer, biaxial measurements, Fiber Bragg Grating-based technology, 3D-printing, ground movements
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Departments: School of Mathematics, Computer Science & Engineering > Engineering > Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Funders: This work was supported by a Newton Fund Impact Scheme, grant, ID IF022-2020, under the Newton-Ungku Omar Fund partnership., The grant is funded by the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT) and delivered by the British Council and MIGHT., This work was also supported by the University of Malaya (RK021-2019 and TOP100PRC). (Corresponding author: Harith Ahmad).
Date available in CRO: 13 Jul 2021 08:57
Date deposited: 13 July 2021
Date of acceptance: 30 May 2021
Date of first online publication: 17 June 2021
Text - Accepted Version
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