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In-silico investigation towards the non-invasive optical detection of blood lactate

Chatterjee, S., Budidha, K. ORCID: 0000-0002-6329-8399, Qassem, M. ORCID: 0000-0003-0730-3189 & Kyriacou, P. A. ORCID: 0000-0002-2868-485X (2021). In-silico investigation towards the non-invasive optical detection of blood lactate. Scientific Reports, 11(1), article number 14274. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92803-x


This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the interaction of short-wave infrared (SWIR) light with vascular tissue as a step toward the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring blood lactate in humans. The primary focus of this work was to determine the optimal source-detector separation, penetration depth of light at SWIR wavelengths in tissue, and the optimal light power required for reliable detection of lactate. The investigation also focused on determining the non-linear variations in absorbance of lactate at a few select SWIR wavelengths. SWIR photons only penetrated 1.3 mm and did not travel beyond the hypodermal fat layer. The maximum output power was only 2.51% of the input power, demonstrating the need for a highly sensitive detection system. Simulations optimized a source-detector separation of 1 mm at 1684 nm for accurate measurement of lactate in blood.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

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