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How Outsiders Become Game Changers

Ferriani, S. ORCID: 0000-0001-9669-3486 & Cattani, G. (2021). How Outsiders Become Game Changers. Harvard Business Review,


Coco Chanel, Steve Jobs, and Katalin Karikó were outsiders whodefied the odds and produced revolutionary innovations. How do such outsiderssucceed when so many others fail? The authors’ research uncovered four factors:(1) The outsiders were not outliers; they belonged to the system but hadn’t losttouch with its fringes. (2) An outsider had at least one insider who was willing tovouch for his or her ideas or abilities. (3) Outsiders leveraged “fracture points” — such as the death of a major gatekeeper. (4) Instead of just viewing their innovation as a technical challenge, they see it as a marketing challenge.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article has been published in Harvard Business Review. All rights reserved.
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
H Social Sciences > HB Economic Theory
H Social Sciences > HM Sociology
Departments: Bayes Business School > Management
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