City Research Online

A method for creating larger clay samples with permeability anisotropy for geotechnical centrifuge modelling

Ritchie, E. P., Divall, S. ORCID: 0000-0001-9212-5115 & Goodey, R.J. (2023). A method for creating larger clay samples with permeability anisotropy for geotechnical centrifuge modelling. In: Rahman, M. & Jaksa, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. (pp. 1175-1180). London, UK: International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. ISBN 9780994626141


Long-term ground movements associated with geotechnical constructions are predominantly caused by the dissipation of excess pore-water pressures and are governed by the permeabilities of both the soil and the geotechnical structure. Natural soil has inherent anisotropy due to the layering and structure as a result of the natural deposition process. A significant factor that influences the rate of consolidation and seepage in natural soils is that the horizontal permeability can be orders of magnitude larger than the vertical permeability. This is often considered in numerical modelling during geotechnical design however, due to the lack of reliable field measurements available, validating these numerical models can be difficult. Geotechnical centrifuge techniques have successfully been used to investigate responses to complex construction events but are, generally, models created from reconstituted soil. This results in models with well-defined but homogeneous properties. There is a fundamental difference between centrifuge models and natural soil deposits. As a result, centrifuge models are better suited to simulating the short-term response of the soil to a construction event. The work presented outlines a procedure for creating large clay models suitable for geotechnical centrifuge testing with a sedimented structure. These models have anisotropy of the horizontal and vertical permeability allowing for more representative soil behaviour (in terms of dissipation of pore-water pressures) which can be used to investigate the long-term movements resulting from geotechnical construction events.

Publication Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Additional Information: © 2022, the authors.
Publisher Keywords: Centrifuge testing; clays; anisotropy; permeability; long-term movements
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
[thumbnail of Ritchie et al (2021) .pdf]
Text - Accepted Version
Download (555kB) | Preview
Official URL:


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login