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Automatic Gemstone Classification Using Computer Vision

Chow, B. H. Y. & Reyes Aldasoro, C. C. ORCID: 0000-0002-9466-2018 (2021). Automatic Gemstone Classification Using Computer Vision. Minerals, 12(1), article number 60. doi: 10.3390/min12010060


This paper presents a computer-vision-based methodology for automatic image-based classification of 2042 training images and 284 unseen (test) images divided into 68 categories of gemstones. A series of feature extraction techniques (33 including colour histograms in the RGB, HSV and CIELAB space, local binary pattern, Haralick texture and grey-level co-occurrence matrix properties) were used in combination with different machine-learning algorithms (Logistic Regression, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbour, Decision Tree, Random Forest, Naive Bayes and Support Vector Machine). Deep-learning classification with ResNet-18 and ResNet-50 was also investigated. The optimal combination was provided by a Random Forest algorithm with the RGB eight-bin colour histogram and local binary pattern features, with an accuracy of 69.4% on unseen images; the algorithms required 0.0165 s to process the 284 test images. These results were compared against three expert gemmologists with at least 5 years of experience in gemstone identification, who obtained accuracies between 42.6% and 66.9% and took 42–175 min to classify the test images. As expected, the human experts took much longer than the computer vision algorithms, which in addition provided, albeit marginal, higher accuracy. Although these experiments included a relatively low number of images, the superiority of computer vision over humans is in line with what has been reported in other areas of study, and it is encouraging to further explore the application in gemmology and related areas.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: gemstone; segmentation; machine learning; computer vision; human vision
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Q Science > QE Geology
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Computer Science
SWORD Depositor:
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