City Research Online

Finite Element Modelling to Predict the Fire Performance of Bio-Inspired 3D-Printed Concrete Wall Panels Exposed to Realistic Fire

Suntharalingam, T., Upasiri, I., Nagaratnam, B. , Poologanathan, K., Gatheeshgar, P., Tsavdaridis, K. D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8349-3979 & Nuwanthika, D. (2022). Finite Element Modelling to Predict the Fire Performance of Bio-Inspired 3D-Printed Concrete Wall Panels Exposed to Realistic Fire. Buildings, 12(2), article number 111. doi: 10.3390/buildings12020111


Large-scale additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D concrete printing, is becoming well-recognized and, therefore, has gained intensive research attention. However, this technology requires appropriate specifications and standard guidelines. Furthermore, the performance of printable concrete in elevated temperature circumstances has not yet been explored extensively. Hence, the authors believe that there is a demand for a set of standardized findings obtained with the support of experiments and numerical modelling of the fire performance of 3D-printed concrete structural elements. In general, fire experiments and simulations focus on ISO 834 standard fire. However, this may not simulate the real fire behaviour of 3D-printed concrete walls. With the aim of bridging this knowledge disparity, this article presents an analysis of the fire performance of 3D-printed concrete walls with biomimetic hollow cross sections exposed to realistic individual fire circumstances. The fire performance of the non-load-bearing 3D-printed concrete wall was identified by developing a suitable numerical heat transfer model. The legitimacy of the developed numerical model was proved by comparing the time–temperature changes with existing results derived from fire experiments on 3D-printed concrete walls. A parametric study of 96 numerical models was consequently performed and included different 3D-printed concrete wall configurations under four fire curves (standard, prolonged, rapid, and hydrocarbon fire). Moreover, 3D-printed concrete walls and mineral wool cavity infilled wall panels showed enhanced fire performance. Moreover, the cellular structures demonstrated superior insulation fire ratings compared to the other configurations.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: 3D concrete printing; bio-inspired structures; fire performance; real fire; finite element modelling; insulation fire rating
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
T Technology > TH Building construction
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of buildings-12-00111.pdf]
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution International Public License 4.0.

Download (3MB) | Preview
[thumbnail of FiniteElementModellingtopredicttheFireperformanceofBio-inspired3DPrintedConcretewallpanelsexposedtorealistic.pdf] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible due to copyright restrictions.


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login