City Research Online

Systematic review on the effects of the physical and social aspects of community pharmacy spaces on service users and staff

Dhital, R., Sakulwach, S., Robert, G. , Vasilikou, C. & Sin, J. ORCID: 0000-0003-0590-7165 (2022). Systematic review on the effects of the physical and social aspects of community pharmacy spaces on service users and staff. Perspectives in Public Health, 142(2), pp. 77-93. doi: 10.1177/17579139221080608


This systematic review aimed to provide new insights into how pharmacy spaces, or the architecture of pharmacies, are experienced by pharmacy service users and staff. The review sought to identify environmental factors which may influence service users’ and staff participation in community-based pharmacy health services.

Ten databases were searched for English language publications, using a combination of search terms relating to pharmacy service users and staff; pharmacy spaces; and health and social care outcomes. Data from the final selected studies were extracted, thematically analysed using a narrative approach and the quality of each study assessed using the Integrated quality Criteria for the Review of Multiple Study designs (ICROMS).

80 articles reporting 80 studies published between 1994 and 2020 were identified; they were from 28 countries, involving around 3234 community pharmacies, 13,615 pharmacy service users, 5056 pharmacists and 78 pharmacy health staff. Most studies (94%) met the ICROMS minimum score, and half did not meet the mandatory quality criteria. Four themes likely to influence service users’ and staff experiences of pharmacy health services were identified: (1) privacy; (2) experience of the physical environment; (3) professional image; and (4) risk of error.

To optimise the delivery and experience of pharmacy health services, these spaces should be made more engaging. Future applied research could focus on optimising inclusive pharmacy design features.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: /This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (
Publisher Keywords: pharmacy, community pharmacy, health spaces, health architecture, pharmacy environment
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Nursing
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (666kB) | Preview



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login