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On the influence of individual differences in cross-modal Mulsemedia QoE

Kani-Zabihi, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-5679-8512, Hussain, N., Mesfin, G. , Covaci, A. & Ghinea, G. (2020). On the influence of individual differences in cross-modal Mulsemedia QoE. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 80(2), pp. 2377-2394. doi: 10.1007/s11042-020-09757-x


Quality of Experience (QoE) is inextricably linked to the human side of the multimedia experience. Whilst there has been a considerable amount of research undertaken to explore the various dimensions of QoE, one facet which been relatively unexplored is the role of individual differences in determining an individual’s QoE. Whereas this is certainly true of multimedia applications, when it comes to mulsemedia (multiple media engaging three or more human senses) this is even more so, given its emerging and novel nature. Accordingly, in this paper we report the results of a study which investigated the role that individual differences (such as age, gender, education, and smell sensitivity) have on QoE, when mulsemedia incorporating olfactory and haptic stimuli is experienced in cross-modal environments. Our results reveal that whilst users had a satisfying overall mulsemedia experience the specific use of cross modally matched odours did not result in significantly higher QoE levels than when a control scent (rosemary) was employed. However, aspects of QoE are impacted upon by all individual differences dimensions considered in our study.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Publisher Keywords: Mulsemedia, Individual differences, Quality of experience, Cross-modal correspondence
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics > QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Computer Science
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