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On the solidity parameter in canopy flows

Monti, A., Nicholas, S., Omidyeganeh, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-4140-2810 , Pinelli, A. ORCID: 0000-0001-5564-9032 & Rosti, M. E. (2022). On the solidity parameter in canopy flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 945, doi: 10.1017/jfm.2022.551


We have performed high-fidelity simulations of turbulent open-channel flows over submerged rigid canopies made of cylindrical filaments of fixed length l=0.25H (H being the domain depth) mounted on the wall with angle of inclination θ. The inclination is the free parameter that sets the density of the canopy by varying its frontal area. The density of the canopy, based on the solidity parameter λ, is a widely accepted criterion defining the ongoing canopy flow regime, with low values (λ≪0.1) indicating the sparse regime, and higher values (λ>0.1) the dense regime. All the numerical predictions have been obtained considering the same nominal bulk Reynolds number (i.e. Reb=UbH/ν=6000). We consider nine configurations of canopies, with θ varying symmetrically around 0∘ in the range θ∈[±78.5∘], where positive angles define canopies inclined in the flow direction (with the grain) and θ=0∘ corresponds to the wall-normally mounted canopy. The study compares canopies with identical solidity obtained inclining the filaments in opposite angles, and assesses the efficacy of the solidity as a representative parameter. It is found that when the canopy is inclined, the actual flow regime differs substantially from the one of a straight canopy that shares the same solidity, indicating that criteria based solely on this parameter are not robust. Finally, a new phenomenological model describing the interaction between the coherent structures populating the canopy region and the outer flow is given.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press . This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution and reproduction, provided the original article is properly cited.
Publisher Keywords: Turbulent Flows, Geophysical and Geological Flows
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

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