City Research Online

Research ethics systems, processes, and awareness across Europe: Radiography research ethics standards for Europe (RRESFE)

Bockhold, S., McNulty, J., Abdurakman, E. ORCID: 0000-0002-7043-052X , Bezzina, P., Drey, N. ORCID: 0000-0003-0752-9049, England, A., Flinton, D., Khine, R., McEntee, M., Mekiš, N., Precht, H., Rainford, L., Sá Dos Reis, C., Santos, A., Syrgiamiotis, V., Willis, S., Woodley, J., Beardmore, C., Harris, R., O'Regan, T. & Malamateniou, C. ORCID: 0000-0002-2352-8575 (2022). Research ethics systems, processes, and awareness across Europe: Radiography research ethics standards for Europe (RRESFE). Radiography, 28(4), pp. 1032-1041. doi: 10.1016/j.radi.2022.07.002


INTRODUCTION: The Radiography Research Ethics Standards for Europe (RRESFE) project aims to provide a cross-sectional snapshot of current research ethics systems, processes, and awareness of such, across Europe together with identifying the associated challenges, education, and training needs.

METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey targeting radiography researchers in Europe was conducted. Data collection took place between April 26 and July 12, 2021, using a snowball sampling approach. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to identify trends in research ethics frameworks across Europe.

RESULTS: 285 responses were received across 33 European and 23 non-European countries. Most (n = 221; 95%) European respondents stated ethics approval is required before commencing research in their country. Requirements around research ethics approval and awareness of such requirements varied by European region (X2 (2, n = 129) = 7.234, p = 0.013) and were found to differ depending on the type of research participant and study design. Additionally, European respondents reported ethics approval is a national requirement more often than their non-European counterparts (X2 (1, n = 282) = 4.316, p = 0.049). Requirements for ethics approval were also associated with the undergraduate programme duration (2-year vs. 3-year vs. 3.5 year vs. 4-year vs. multiple programme durations; X2 (4, n = 231) = 10.075, p = 0.016) and availability of postgraduate training (postgraduate training available vs. postgraduate training not available; X2 (1, n = 231) = 15.448, p = <0.001) within respondents' country.

CONCLUSION: Respondents from countries with longer programme durations/availability of multiple programme lengths, availability of postgraduate training, and establishment of European Qualifications Framework Level 6 were generally associated with less uncertainty and more comprehensive research ethics requirements.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Results are informative of the current status of research ethics within evidence-based radiography.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The College of Radiographers. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://
Publisher Keywords: Research ethics, Radiography, Standards, Processes
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HA Statistics
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Nursing
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (693kB) | Preview



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login