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Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Reitsma, M. B., Reitsma, M. B., Kendrick, P. J. , Ababneh, E., Abbafati, C., Abbasi-Kangevari, M., Abdoli, A., Abedi, A., Abhilash, E. S., Abila, D. B., Aboyans, V., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M. E., Adebayo, O. M., Advani, S. M., Aghaali, M., Ahinkorah, B. O., Ahmad, S., Ahmadi, K., Ahmed, H., Aji, B., Akunna, C. J., Al-Aly, Z., Alanzi, T. M., Alhabib, K. F., Ali, L., Alif, S. M., Alipour, V., Aljunid, S. M., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amin, T. T., Amini, S., Amu, H., Amul, G. G. H., Ancuceanu, R., Anderson, J. A., Ansari-Moghaddam, A., Antonio, C. A. T., Antony, B., Anvari, D., Arabloo, J., Arian, N. D., Arora, M., Asaad, M., Ausloos, M., Awan, A. T., Ayano, G., Aynalem, G. L., Azari, S., Darshan, B. B., Badiye, A. D., Baig, A. A., Bakhshaei, M. H., Banach, M., Banik, P. C., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T. W., Barqawi, H. J., Basu, S., Bayati, M., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Behzadifar, M., Bekuma, T. T., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Berfield, K. S. S., Bhagavathula, A. S., Bhardwaj, N., Bhardwaj, P., Bhattacharyya, K., Bibi, S., Bijani, A., Bintoro, B. S., Biondi, A., Birara, S., Braithwaite, D., Brenner, H., Brunoni, A. R., Burkart, K., Butt, Z. A., Caetano dos Santos, F. L., Alberto Camera, L., Car, J., Cardenas, R., Carreras, G., Carrero, J. J., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., Cattaruzza, M. S. S., Chang, J-C., Chen, S., Chu, D-T., Chung, S-C., Cirillo, M., Costa, V. M., Couto, R. A. S., Dadras, O., Dai, X., Damasceno, A. A. M., Damiani, G., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Daneshpajouhnejad, P., Gela, J. D., Davletov, K., Molla, M. D., Dessie, G. A., Desta, A. A., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dianatinasab, M., Diaz, D., Do, H. T., Douiri, A., Duncan, B. B., Duraes, A. R., Eagan, A. W., Kalan, M. E., Edvardsson, K., Elbarazi, I., El Tantawi, M., Esmaeilnejad, S., Fadhil, I., Faraon, E. J. A., Farinha, C. S., Farwati, M., Farzadfar, F., Fazlzadeh, M., Feigin, V. L., Feldman, R., Prendes, C. F., Ferrara, P., Filip, I., Filippidis, F., Fischer, F., Flor, L. S., Foigt, N. A., Folayan, M. O., Foroutan, M., Gad, M. M., Gaidhane, A. M., Gallus, S., Geberemariyam, B. S., Ghafourifard, M., Ghajar, A., Ghashghaee, A., Giampaoli, S., Gill, P. S., Glozah, F. N., Gnedovskaya, E. V., Golechha, M., Gopalani, S. V., Gorini, G., Goudarzi, H., Goulart, A. C., Greaves, F., Guha, A., Guo, Y., Gupta, B., Das Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, T., Gupta, V., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Haider, M. R., Hamadeh, R. R., Hankey, G. J., Hargono, A., Hartono, R. K., Hassankhani, H., Hay, S. I., Heidari, G., Herteliu, C., Hezam, K., Hird, T. R., Hole, M. K., Holla, R., Hosseinzadeh, M., Hostiuc, S., Househ, M., Hsiao, T., Huang, J., Iannucci, V. C., Ibitoye, S. E., Idrisov, B., Ilesanmi, O. S., Ilic, I. M., Ilic, M. D., Inbaraj, L. R., Irvani, S. S. N., Islam, J. Y., Islam, R. M., Islam, S. M. S., Islami, F., Iso, H., Itumalla, R., Iwagami, M., Jaafari, J., Jain, V., Jakovljevic, M., Jang, S-I., Janjani, H., Jayaram, S., Jeemon, P., Jha, R. P., Jonas, J. B., Joo, T., Jurisson, M., Kabir, A., Kabir, Z., Kalankesh, L. R., Kanchan, T., Kandel, H., Kapoor, N., Karimi, S. E., Katikireddi, S. V., Kebede, H. K., Kelkay, B., Kennedy, R. D., Khoja, A. T., Khubchandani, J., Kim, G. R., Kim, Y-E., Kimokoti, R. W., Kivimaki, M., Kosen, S., Laxminarayana, S. L. K., Koyanagi, A., Krishan, K., Kugbey, N., Kumar, G. A., Kumar, N., Kurmi, O. P., Kusuma, D. ORCID: 0000-0002-1909-9341, Lacey, B., Lam, J. O., Landires, I., Lasrado, S., Lauriola, P., Lee, D. W., Lee, Y. H., Leung, J., Li, S., Lin, H., Linn, S., Liu, W., Lopez, A. D., Lopukhov, P. D., Lorkowski, S., Lugo, A., Majeed, A., Maleki, A., Malekzadeh, R., Malta, D. C., Mamun, A. A., Manjunatha, N., Mansouri, B., Mansournia, M. A., Martinez-Raga, J., Martini, S., Mathur, M. R., Medina-Solis, C. E., Mehata, S., Mendoza, W., Menezes, R. G., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T. J., Miazgowski, B., Michalek, I. M., Miller, T. R., Mirrakhimov, E. M., Mirzaei, H., Mirzaei-Alavijeh, M., Misra, S., Moghadaszadeh, M., Mohammad, Y., Mohammadian-Hafshejani, A., Mohammed, S., Mokdad, A. H., Monasta, L., Moni, M. A., Moradi, G., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moradzadeh, R., Morrison, S. D., Mossie, T. B., Mubarik, S., Mullany, E. C., Murray, C. J. L., Naghavi, M., Naghshtabrizi, B., Nair, S. K., Nalini, M., Nangia, V., Naqvi, A. A., Swamy, S. N., Naveed, M., Nayak, S., Nayak, V. C., Nazari, J., Nduaguba, S. O., Kandel, S. N., Nguyen, C. T., Nguyen, H. L. T., Nguyen, S. H., Nguyen, T. H., Nixon, M. R., Nnaji, C. A., Norrving, B., Noubiap, J. J., Nowak, C., Ogbo, F. A., Oguntade, A. S., Oh, I-H., Olagunju, A. T., Oren, E., Otstavnov, N., Otstavnov, S. S., Owolabi, M., Pakhale, M. P. A. S., Pakshir, K., Palladino, R., Pana, A., Panda-Jonas, S., Pandey, A., Parekh, U., Park, E-C., Park, E-K., Kan, F. P., Patton, G. C., Pawar, S., Pestell, R. G., Pinheiro, M., Piradov, M. A., Pirouzpanah, S., Pokhrel, K. N., Polibin, R. V., Prashant, A., Pribadi, D. R. A., Radfar, A., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, A. M., Rahman, M. H. U., Rahman, M. A., Rahmani, A. M., Rajai, N., Ram, P., Ranabhat, C. L., Rathi, P., Rawal, L., Renzaho, A. M. N., Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, L., Rezapour, A., Riahi, S. M., Riaz, M. A., Roever, L., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Roy, A., Roy, B., Sacco, S., Saddik, B., Sahebkar, A., Salehi, S., Salimzadeh, H., Samaei, M., Samy, A. M., Santos, I. S., Santric-Milicevic, M. M., Sarrafzadegan, N., Sathian, B., Sawhney, M., Saylan, M., Schaub, M. P., Schmidt, M. I., Ceola Schneider, I. J., Schutte, A. E., Schwendicke, F., Seidu, A-A., Kumar, N. S., Sepanlou, S. G., Seylani, A., Shafaat, O., Shah, S. M., Shaikh, M. A., Shalash, A. S., Shannawaz, M., Sharafi, K., Sheikh, A., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shigematsu, M., Shiri, R., Shishani, K., Shivakumar, K. M., Shivalli, S., Shrestha, R., Siabani, S., Sidemo, N. B., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Sigurvinsdottir, R., Santos Silva, D. A., Silva, J. D., Singh, A., Singh, J. A., Singh, V., Sinha, D. N., Sitas, F., Skryabin, V. Y., Skryabina, A. A., Soboka, M., Soriano, J. B., Soroush, A., Soshnikov, S., Soyiri, I. N., Spurlock, E. E., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stein, D. J., Steiropoulos, P., Stortecky, S., Straif, K., Abdulkader, R. S., Sulo, G., Sundström, J., Tabuchi, T., Tadakamadla, S. K., Taddele, B. W., Tadesse, E. G., Tamiru, A. T., Tareke, M., Tareque, M. I., Tarigan, I. U., Temsah, M-H., Thankappan, K. R., Thapar, R., Tichopad, A., Tolani, M. A., Topouzis, F., Tovani-Palone, M. R., Tran, B. X., Tripathy, J. P., Tsegaye, G. W., Tsilimparis, N., Tymeson, H. D., Ullah, A., Ullah, S., Unim, B., Updike, R. L., Vacante, M., Valdez, P. R., Vardavas, C., Varona Perez, P., Vasankari, T. J., Venketasubramanian, N., Verma, M., Vetrova, M. V., Vo, B., Vu, G. T., Waheed, Y., Wang, Y., Welding, K., Werdecker, A., Whisnant, J. L., Wickramasinghe, N. D., Yamagishi, K., Yandrapalli, S., Yatsuya, H., Yazdi-Feyzabadi, V., Yeshaw, Y., Yimmer, M. Z., Yonemoto, N., Yu, C., Yunusa, I., Yusefzadeh, H., Moghadam, T. Z., Zaman, M. S., Zamanian, M., Zandian, H., Zar, H. J., Zastrozhin, M. S., Zastrozhina, A., Zavala-Arciniega, L., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z-J., Zhong, C., Zuniga, Y. M. H., Gakidou, E. & Collaborators, GBD 2019 Tobacco (2021). Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet, 397(10292), pp. 2337-2360. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01169-7

Abstract

Background
Ending the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally.

Methods
We estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available.

Findings
Globally in 2019, 1·14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1·13–1·16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7·41 trillion (7·11–7·74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27·5% [26·5–28·5] reduction) and females (37·7% [35·4–39·9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0·99 billion (0·98–1·00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7·69 million (7·16–8·20) deaths and 200 million (185–214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20·2% [19·3–21·1] of male deaths). 6·68 million [86·9%] of 7·69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers.

Interpretation
In the absence of intervention, the annual toll of 7·69 million deaths and 200 million disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking will increase over the coming decades. Substantial progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking tobacco use has been observed in countries from all regions and at all stages of development, but a large implementation gap remains for tobacco control. Countries have a clear and urgent opportunity to pass strong, evidence-based policies to accelerate reductions in the prevalence of smoking and reap massive health benefits for their citizens.

Funding
Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GA Mathematical geography. Cartography
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
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