City Research Online

High visibility of outdoor tobacco advertisements around health facilities in East Java, Indonesia: a geospatial analysis

Megatsari, H., Akhsanu Ridlo, I. & Kusuma, D. ORCID: 0000-0002-1909-9341 (2021). High visibility of outdoor tobacco advertisements around health facilities in East Java, Indonesia: a geospatial analysis. Medical Journal of Indonesia, 30(2), pp. 170-174. doi: 10.13181/mji.bc.204177


Indonesian tobacco control initiatives are minimal despite having the second-highest adult male smoking prevalence in the world, with less than 10% of districts/cities banning outdoor tobacco advertisements. This research aimed to provide evidence on the presence of outdoor tobacco advertisements near health facilities in Surabaya where there is no outdoor advertising ban.

Data collection was carried out in Surabaya from October to November 2018. Data of government (public) and private health facilities were obtained from the city health office. Two spatial data analyses were carried out: a buffer analysis near the healthcare facilities and an advertisement hotspot analysis using ArcMap 10.6.

From 308 tobacco advertisements that were identified, there were billboards (63%), banners (31%), and videoboards (7%). Of 142 public and 1,242 private health facilities in Surabaya, 26% and 31% had advertisements within 300 m and 63% and 70% were within advertisement hotspots, respectively. Furthermore, 5% of advertisements were within 300 m from public health facilities and 21% of them were within 300 m from private health facilities.

Outdoor tobacco advertisements were widespread throughout the city, prominently around public and private health facilities.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright © 2021 Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly cited. For commercial use of this work, please see our terms at
Publisher Keywords: geospatial analysis, health facilities, Indonesia, tobacco advertisement, visibility
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GA Mathematical geography. Cartography
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
Text - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial.

Download (892kB) | Preview



Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login