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Sound generation by entropy perturbations passing through a sudden flow expansion

Yang, D., Guzmán-Iñigo, J. ORCID: 0000-0002-1833-6034 & Morgans, A. S. (2020). Sound generation by entropy perturbations passing through a sudden flow expansion. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 905, article number R2. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2020.849


Entropy perturbations generate sound when accelerated/decelerated by a non-uniform flow. Current analytical models provide a good prediction of this entropy noise when the flow cross-sectional area changes are gradual, as is the case for nozzle flows. However, they typically rely on quasi-1-D and isentropic assumptions, and their predictions differ significantly from experimental measurements when sudden area increases are involved. This work uses a theoretical approach to quantitatively identify the main mechanisms responsible for the mismatch. A new form of the acoustic analogy is derived in which the entropy-related source terms are systematically identified for the first time. The theory includes three-dimensional and non-isentropic effects. The approach is applied to the flow through a sudden area expansion, for which the large-scale flow separation creates a recirculation zone. The derived acoustic analogy is simplified for low Mach numbers and frequencies, and solved using a Green's function method. The results provide the first quantitative evidence that the presence and spatial extent of the recirculation zone, rather than the flow non-isentropicity, is the dominant factor causing deviation from predictions from quasi-1-D, isentropic theory.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the same Creative Commons licence is included and the original work is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use. © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press.
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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