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Combustion characteristics of steam-diluted decomposed ammonia in multiple-nozzle direct injection burner

Zhang, K., Shen, Y., Palulli, R. , Ghobadian, A., Nouri, J. M. ORCID: 0000-0001-8610-3737 & Duwig, C. (2023). Combustion characteristics of steam-diluted decomposed ammonia in multiple-nozzle direct injection burner. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 48(42), pp. 16083-16099. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2023.01.091


In line with the decarbonisation of power sector, carbon-free fuels are currently being investigated. In particular, green ammonia or e-ammonia is a candidate fuel which will be playing a key role in many energy-intensive industries. It calls for an in-depth understanding of eFuels combustion characteristics in the fuel flexible combustors. Therefore, the present work for the first time numerically investigates the combustion regimes of steam-diluted, decomposed eNH3 in a novel multi-nozzle direct injection (MDI) burner. Although the MDI burner is not equipped with a conventional swirler, strong flow-flame interaction is observed. The two-layer, angled channels create swirling flows featuring swirl numbers larger than 0.9 in general. The centre recirculation region can help stabilise highly steam-diluted decomposed ammonia with a maximum steam-to-air ratio of 74%. This highest H2% containing, wettest ammonia flame case is found to emit the lowest total emission (NH3+NO + NO2+N2O) of ∼400ppmvd@15%O2 at stoichiometric conditions. The wall heat loss is confirmed responsible for the formation of N2O in distributed flame, suggesting the need of reducing pollution through good chamber wall insulation. However, for flames sitting in the conventional regimes, the impact of wall heat loss is found insignificant. Further, extensive data and flame regime analyses show that NNH can always accurately mark the high heat release region of all types of flames, while OH is only an effective marker for thin flames.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Publisher Keywords: Ammonia decomposition, NOx emission, Wet combustion, Two-stage combustion, Flame marker, MILD
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
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