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Global trends in emotional distress

Daly, M. & Macchia, L. ORCID: 0000-0001-9558-4747 (2023). Global trends in emotional distress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 120(14), article number e221620712. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2216207120


In this study, we examined emotional distress using annual representative survey data from 1.53 million individuals surveyed in 113 countries from 2009 to 2021. Participants reported whether they had experienced worry, sadness, stress, or anger during a lot of the previous day. Within-country estimates showed that the prevalence of feelings of emotional distress increased from 25 to 31% between 2009 and 2021, with those with low levels of education and income experiencing the largest increases in distress. On a global level, the pandemic period was characterized by an initial increase in distress in 2020 followed by recovery in 2021.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. This open access article is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Psychology
SWORD Depositor:
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