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Influence of Cu and Ni on the Hot Ductility of Low C Steels with Respect to the Straightening Operation When Continuous Casting

Comineli, O., Qaban, A. ORCID: 0000-0003-2982-8429 & Mintz, B. (2022). Influence of Cu and Ni on the Hot Ductility of Low C Steels with Respect to the Straightening Operation When Continuous Casting. Metals, 12(10), article number 1671. doi: 10.3390/met12101671


Cu-containing steels can suffer from hot shortness unless Ni is added to protect them but whether this problem also influences the straightening operation is not clear. Previous work on hot ductility has found that only when the tensile samples from Cu-containing steels are oxidised can any deleterious influence of copper be found. However, this paper shows that oxidation is not essential. It is more complex than that and, as Cu has been suggested for TRIP steels at levels up to 2.5% Cu to increase their strength and ductility, a greater understanding is required, both of hot shortness and cracking during straightening. The present paper explores the hot ductility behaviour of steels alloyed with Cu and Ni in the straightening temperature range, 700–1000 °C, when tested in air and in an argon atmosphere. Segregation of Cu to the sulphides and grain boundaries occurred allowing the formation of fine Cu2S particles at the austenite grain boundaries favouring intergranular failure and this was more pronounced under oxidising conditions and required strain. It was concluded that a Cu addition, as well as causing hot shortness at higher temperatures will also cause cracking problems in the straightening temperature range in the more sensitive to cracking grades of steel and although the problems are different they are nevertheless interrelated and provided there is sufficient Ni, both may be avoided.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
Publisher Keywords: Cu; Ni; HSLA; steel; hot ductility; straightening; hot shortness
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
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