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Measures of multiple deprivation and visual field loss in glaucoma clinics in England: lessons from big data

Rathore, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5749-2761, Shweikh, Y., Kelly, S. R. R. & Crabb, D. P. ORCID: 0000-0001-8611-1155 (2023). Measures of multiple deprivation and visual field loss in glaucoma clinics in England: lessons from big data. Eye, 37(17), pp. 3615-3620. doi: 10.1038/s41433-023-02567-z


To examine the association between multiple deprivation with late diagnosis and rapid worsening of glaucoma in patients in English hospital eye services (HES).

602,439 visual fields (VFs) were extracted from five regionally different glaucoma clinics in England. Mean Deviation (MD) worse than −12 dB was used as a surrogate definition for advanced VF loss at diagnosis in patients with ≥2 reliable VF records. MD loss worse than -1 dB per year was used to define rapid VF progression in patients with ≥6 VFs. Patient data were stratified into deciles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from residential postcodes.

There was an association between IMD and advanced VF loss at diagnosis in 44,956 patients with 18% (293/1608) and 11% (771/6929) in the most and least deprived IMD decile, respectively. Age-corrected odds ratio (OR) for having advanced VF loss at entry into HES was 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–1.67) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66–0.85) in the most and least deprived IMD decile respectively (reference = fifth decile). In 15,094 patients with follow up data (median [interquartile range] of 6.9 [4.5, 10.0] years), the proportion having rapid VF progression did not differ across the IMD spectrum.

Large-scale VF data from clinics indicates that glaucoma severity at presentation to English HES is associated with levels of multiple deprivation. We found no evidence to suggest likelihood of having rapid VF progression during follow-up is associated with IMD; this hints at equity of glaucoma care and outcomes once patients are in English HES.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
Publisher Keywords: Epidemiology, Optic nerve diseases
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Optometry & Visual Sciences
SWORD Depositor:
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