City Research Online

Sustainable and resilient seismic design of reinforced concrete frames with rocking isolation on spread footings

Mergos, P.E. ORCID: 0000-0003-3817-9520 (2023). Sustainable and resilient seismic design of reinforced concrete frames with rocking isolation on spread footings. Engineering Structures, 292, article number 116605. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2023.116605


The rapidly evolving climate change together with the urgent need of modern societies for resilience against catastrophic threats set the sustainable and resilient seismic design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures as a priority. Rocking isolation of RC frames resting on spread footings has been proven numerically and experimentally to offer superior seismic performance with reduced seismic demands in the superstructure. At the same time, rocking footings do not require special construction solutions and can be readily implemented in the current state of practice. To exploit these benefits, the present study, for first time, utilizes rocking footings in the optimum design of RC frames for high seismic resilience and reduced environmental impact. This is achieved by incorporating a resilient seismic design methodology into a numerical optimization procedure that is aiming to minimize embodied carbon. Applications of the proposed approach show that the carbon footprint of RC frames can be reduced by 40% due to rocking isolation on spread footings. The benefits become more important as the level of seismic hazard increases. It is also found that the environmental benefits of rocking footings for RC frames are rather insensitive to the characteristics of ground motions and the uncertainties of soil properties.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Publisher Keywords: Reinforced concrete frames, Rocking isolation, Spread footings, Structural optimization, Genetic algorithm, Embodied carbon
Subjects: T Technology > TH Building construction
Departments: School of Science & Technology > Engineering
SWORD Depositor:
[thumbnail of Mergos_2023_final_R_clean.pdf] Text - Accepted Version
This document is not freely accessible until 14 July 2024 due to copyright restrictions.
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

To request a copy, please use the button below.

Request a copy


Add to AnyAdd to TwitterAdd to FacebookAdd to LinkedinAdd to PinterestAdd to Email


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics

Actions (login required)

Admin Login Admin Login