City Research Online

Perceptions of Violence and the Self-Regulation of Identity for LGBTQ People in the UK

Maine, A. ORCID: 0000-0002-0962-750X (2022). Perceptions of Violence and the Self-Regulation of Identity for LGBTQ People in the UK. The Journal of Criminal Law, 86(2), pp. 60-74. doi: 10.1177/00220183221086384


This article will focus on LGBTQ people's perceptions of violence in the United Kingdom in the years following the advent of same-sex marriage using original empirical evidence. These perceptions will be discussed by focussing on the awareness of hate crime legislation, the role of law in constraining homophobia alongside intersections of racism, and of the impact of civil law reform protecting LGBTQ rights. This may be evidenced in many ways, which this article will recount, including demonstrating awareness of hate crimes, avoiding overt shows of affection, and the use of safe spaces to exhibit their sexuality. Empirical evidence will be used to suggest that despite the advent of hate crime protections, increased relationship recognition rights, and greater representation, many LGBTQ people anticipate violence or harm because of their sexuality. This article will use theoretical and empirical analysis to discuss the ways in which violence may manifest in the perceptions of LGBTQ participants and the significance of such perceptions in the ‘post-equality’ society.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page (
Publisher Keywords: Violence, hate crime, empirical, LGBTQ, sexuality
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
K Law > K Law (General)
Departments: The City Law School > Academic Programmes
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