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The detrimental effects of delay on the endorsement of misleading details for emotionally salient events

Shah, D. & Knott, L. ORCID: 0000-0003-2897-3245 (2023). The detrimental effects of delay on the endorsement of misleading details for emotionally salient events. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, article number 1212709. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1212709


Previous research has shown that the exposure to misleading information continues its detrimental effect on memory over time for negatively arousing events. However, research has also shown that both high-and low-arousing negative events are vulnerable to distortion from misinformation. Therefore, the present study set out to explore the impact of retention interval on memory for negative (arousing and non-arousing) and neutral events in the misinformation paradigm. Participants were presented with a negative high-arousing, a negative low-arousing, and a neutral scene, and exposed to misleading information for central and peripheral aspects of each scene. Recognition memory for scene details was measured 10 min after misinformation exposure and again after one week. We found that, regardless of the type of detail, the effect of misinformation persisted over time for the negative-arousing event but disappeared one week later for the negative low-arousing and neutral events. The results are explained in relation to adaptive function and theories of source monitoring. The findings of this study provide important forensic implications, especially when we consider the arousing nature of crimes.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright © 2023 Shah and Knott. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Publisher Keywords: misinformation paradigm, retention interval, memory, emotion, arousal
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Psychology
SWORD Depositor:
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