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Traumatic birth and childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder: International expert consensus recommendations for practice, policy, and research

Ayers, S. ORCID: 0000-0002-6153-2460, Horsch, A., Garthus-Niegel, S. , Nieuwenhuijze, M., Bogaerts, A., Hartmann, K., Karlsdottir, S. I., Oosterman, M., Tecirli, G., Turner, J. D., Lalor, J. & COST Action CA18211 (2023). Traumatic birth and childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder: International expert consensus recommendations for practice, policy, and research. Women Birth, doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2023.11.006


Research suggests 1 in 3 births are experienced as psychologically traumatic and about 4% of women and 1% of their partners develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result.

To provide expert consensus recommendations for practice, policy, and research and theory.

Two consultations (n = 65 and n = 43) with an international group of expert researchers and clinicians from 33 countries involved in COST Action CA18211; three meetings with CA18211 group leaders and stakeholders; followed by review and feedback from people with lived experience and CA18211 members (n = 238).

Recommendations for practice include that care for women and birth partners must be given in ways that minimise negative birth experiences. This includes respecting women’s rights before, during, and after childbirth; and preventing maltreatment and obstetric violence. Principles of trauma-informed care need to be integrated across maternity settings. Recommendations for policy include that national and international guidelines are needed to increase awareness of perinatal mental health problems, including traumatic birth and childbirth-related PTSD, and outline evidence-based, practical strategies for detection, prevention, and treatment. Recommendations for research and theory include that birth needs to be understood through a neuro-biopsychosocial framework. Longitudinal studies with representative and global samples are warranted; and research on prevention, intervention and cost to society is essential.

Implementation of these recommendations could potentially reduce traumatic births and childbirth-related PTSD worldwide and improve outcomes for women and families. Recommendations should ideally be incorporated into a comprehensive, holistic approach to mental health support for all involved in the childbirth process.

Publication Type: Article
Additional Information: © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Australian College of Midwives. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
Publisher Keywords: Birth, Post-traumatic stress disorder, Recommendations, Policy, Maternity, Obstetric
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Departments: School of Health & Psychological Sciences > Healthcare Services Research & Management
SWORD Depositor:
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